Shakespeare – The History of English (3/10)

Shakespeare – The History of English (3/10)


The History of English in ten minutes. Chapter
3: Shakespeare, or a plaque on both his houses. As the dictionary tells us about 2000 new
words and phrases were invented by William Shakespeare. He gave us handy words like eyeball,
puppy dog and anchovy and more show-offy words like dauntless, besmirch and lacklustre. He
came up with the word alligator, soon after he ran out of things to rhyme with crocodile
and a nation of tea drinkers finally took him to their hearts when he invented the hob-nob.
Shakespeare knew the power of catchphrases as well as biscuits, without him we would
never eat our flesh and blood out of house and home, we would have to say good riddance
to the green-eyed monster and breaking the ice would be as dead as a door nail. If you
try to get your money’s worth, you would be given short shrift and any one who laid it
on with a trowel could be hoist with his own petard. Of course it is possible that other
people used these words first, but the dictionary writers liked looking them up in Shakespeare
cos there was more cross dressing and people taking each other’s eyes out. Shakespeare’s
poetry showed the world that English was a rich, vibrant language with limitless expressive
and emotional power and he still had time to open all those tea rooms in Stratford.

69 thoughts on “Shakespeare – The History of English (3/10)

  1. Those new words had surely some 'woody' quality….
    (See "The Monty Pythons best sketch ever"…in remembrance of Graham Chapman… alias Mansfield: "You can't beat wood" )

  2. i dont understand how he could make a new word.wouldnt the people reading the play not have a clue what the new word meant.i think its a bit iifushd.

  3. I know it's meant to be funny, but people didn't drink tea in England yet in the Elizabethan age!

    @ihnlChiv Shakespeare would also change change words to make new ones, like the word "amazement" our of "maze"; as in, you're so confused that you feel like you're in a maze, which came to mean: in wonderment. People would understand the word from the context, and then start using them because it was fashionable to try new ones out!

  4. Invented about 2000 words and phrases
    He may have heard them, and then written them down
    Opened a lot of tea rooms in Stratford

  5. I love Shakespeare, he really did know how to use the English language beautifully. I know this has been said many times before; I just figured I'd throw my own two, unoriginal cents in on my favorite author.

  6. @SWEDISHnFINNISH It's not that he "couldn't" spell it; it's simply that spelling was more fluid — less codified — at that time.

  7. Well now, at last he's showing that he was actually useful.
    I've always thought he was much ado about nothing indeed.

  8. Most people pretend to like shakespeare just to impress everyone else pretending to like shakespeare. Honestly, who would read his crap if it wasnt required reading?

  9. Thats right. You should stick to watching soaps and sitcoms and leave Shakespeare to people intelligent enough to appreciate him.

  10. What makes you think you have the power or ability to delve into the minds of any person to tell them WHY they might read Shakespeare?

  11. Big Bad Bill!!!! this is why i have so much respect for him. and putting his phraseology into iambic pentameter is just the icing on the cake.pure genius

  12. What is trolling? It was a valid question, I demand an answer. So far no one has been able to provide an answer to ye question I be asking.

  13. Probably he was not smart enough to be able to foretell that people would entertain such distasteful tendencies of monumentalizing the greatness. However, it is precisely due to this natural predisposition that his works were rendered immortal. Immortal yet dead concomitantly. What is a monument but a gravestone to remark upon the elapsed ebbs of greatness?

  14. I suppose this is meant to appeal to people with short attention spans who favor cheap entertainment over education.

  15. The OU is conducting a survey investigating how people use our free content. The aim is to provide a better free learning experience for everyone. If you are interested in giving your views please copy and paste this link into your browser – bit.ly /ouytsurvey – (you will need to remove the space before /ouytsurvey in order for the link to work)

  16. La razón de la razón que a mi razón se hace de tal manera que mi razón enflaquece que por lo cual me quejo de la vuestra fermosura Pirate!

  17. There are many many other words that are not included, like clitoris…. 🙂
    which is greek also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_words_with_English_derivatives

  18. Could you tell me please, all these words, when, according to your research were invented? Its not only about science, the word air is the greek αήρ,
    They are words that you are using everyday, without knowing….,
    Not to mention the derivatives.Press to see SOME of them……

    abyss, academy, acme=δόξα-ακμή, acrobat, acropolis, aegis, aerial, aerodrome, aeronautics, aeroplane, aesthetic, air, all, allegory, allergy, alphabet, amalgam,ambrosia, amethyst, amnesia, amphibian, amphitheatre, amphora=αμφορεύς, anachronism, anaemia, anagram, analogy, analysis, anarchism, anathema, anatomy, angel, anomalous, antagonism, anorexia, anthology, anticyclone, aorta=αορτή, apathetic, aphorism, apocalypse, apologise, apoplexy, apostasy, apostle, apostrophe, apothecary, archaeology, archbishop, archdeacon=αρχιδιάκων, archipelago, architect, arctic, aristocratic, arithmetic, aroma, arsenic, asbestos, ascetic, asphyxia, asthma, astrology, astronaut, astronomy, asylum, atheism, athlete, atmosphere, atom, atrophy, aura=αύρα-φωτοστέφανο, austere=αυστηρός, authentic, autobiography, autocrat=αυτοκράτωρ-μονάρχης, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autopsy, axiom. (80)

    b. bacterium, baptism, barbarian, baritone, barometre, basic, basil, bathos, basis, Bible, bibliography, bigamy, biochemistry, biography, biology, biplane, blasphemy, botany. (18)

    c. call, callus, calyx, canon, captain, card, cartography, castor, cataclysm, catacombs, catalogue, catalyst, catapult, cataract, catarrh=καταρροή, catastrophe, catehism, categoric, cathedral, cathode, catholic, caustic, cell, cemetery, cenotaph, centre, ceramic, chameleon, chaos, character, chart, chasm, chimera, chiropractor, choir=xoρός-χορωδία, chiropodist="πεντικιουρίστ", chord=χορδή, choreography, chorus, Christ, chromatic, chromosome, chronic, chronicle, chronological, chronometre, chryssalis, chryssanthemum, cinema, cirrhosis, claustrophobia, cleric, climacteric, climate, climax, clinic, code, colosal=κολοσιαίος, coma, comedy, comic, comma, cosmos, cosmetic, cosmonaut, cost, crisis, criterion, criticism, crypt, crystal, cybernetics, cycle, cyclone, cyclopaedia, cyclotron, cylinder, cymbal, cynic, cyst. (80)

    d. deacon=διάκος, decade, decalogue, delta, demagogic, democracy, demography, demon, demotic, dermatology, diabetes, diabolic, diadem=διάδημα, diaeresis, diagnosis, diagonal, diagram, dialect, dialogue, diameter, diamont, diaphanous, diaphragm, diatribe, dichotomy, dictator, didactic, diet, dilemma, dinosaur, dioxide, diorama, diphtheria, diphthong, diploma, diplomat, disaster=δυσαστρία-δεν "έχω άστρο", disc, dolphin, dose, double, draconian, dragon, drama, drastic, dynamic, dynamite, dynasty, dyspepsia.(49)

    e. eccentric, ecclesiastic, echo, eclectic, eclipse, ecology, economic, ecstasy, ecumenical, eczema, egoism, elastic, electric, elegiac, elephant, eliptic, emblem, embryo, emetic, emphasis, emporium, encyclopedia, endemic, energy, enigma, enthrone, enthusiasm, entomology, enzyme, ephemeral, epidemic, epigram, epilepsy, epilogue, epiphany, episode, epistle, epitaph, epithet, epitome, epoch, erotic, esophagus, esoteric, ether, ethic, ethnic, ethos, etymology, eucalyptus, Eucharist, eugenics, eulogize, eunuch, euphemism, euphony, euphoria, Eurasia, eureka=εύρηκα, evangelic, exodus, exorcize=εξορκίζω, exotic.(63)

    f. fable=φαύλος-μύθος, fanatic, fantasy, father, frenetic=φρενήρης.(5)

    g. galaxy, gastronomy, general, genesis, genus, geography, geocentric, geophysics, geopolitics, geology, geometry, gerontology, gigantic, glycerine, gyro, goverment, grammatical, gramophone, graphic, gymnasium, gregorian, gynecaology. (23)

    h. hagiology, halcyon=αλκυονίδες ημέρες, harmony, hecatomb, hectare, hedonism, hegemony, helicopter, heliotrope, helium, helot=είλωτας, hemisphere, hemorhage=αιμοραγία, hemoroids, hepatitis, heretic, hermaphrodite, hermetic, hermit=ερημίτης, hero, heroin, hesperus, heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, hexagon, hexameter, hierarchy, hieroglyph, hilarious=ιλαρός-εύθυμος, hippopotamus, hippodrome, history, holocaust, holograph, homeopathy, homogeneous, homonym, homophone, horizon, hymen, hyperbole, hypnosis, hypocrisy, hypotenuse=υποτείνουσα, hysteria, homosexual, horde=ορδή-στίφος, horizon, hormone, hour, hydrostatics, hydrophobia, hyena, hygiene, hymn, hypertrophic, hypochondria, hypodermic, hypothesis.(60)

    i. iamb, icon, iconoclaust, idea, ideorgam, ideology, idiot, idiolect, idiom, idiosyncrasy, idylle, Ireland=xώρα της Ίριδος, ironic, isobar, isosceles, isotope, isthmus. (17)

    k. kaleidoscope, kilo, kilocycle, kilogram, kilometre, kilolitre, kinetic, kleptomania. (8)

    l. labyrinth, laconic, laic, larynx, lava, lesbian, lethargy, leukemia, lexical, lithography, logarithm, logic, logistics, lynx=λύγξ-αγριόγατα, lyre, lyric. (16)

    m. macrobiotic, macrocosm, magic, magnet, mania, mathematics, mechanic, medal, megacycle, megalith, megalomania, megaphone, megaton, meiosis, melancholia, melodic, melodrama, meningitis, menopause, metabolism, metallic, metallurgy, metamorphosis, metaphor, metaphysics, meteor, meteorite, meteorology, meter, metre, metric, metronome, metropolis, miasma, microbe, microbiology, microelectronics, micrometer, micron, microorganism, microphone, microscope, mimeograph, mimetic, monarch, monastery, monogamy, monogram, monolith, monologue, monomania, monoplane, monopoly, monosyllable, monotheism, monotone, morphology, museum, music, myopia, myriad, mysterious, mystic, myth.(64)

    n. narcissism, narcotic, nautical, nautilus, narcomancy, necropolis, nectar, nemesis, neolithic, neologism, neon, nerve, neoplasm, nephritis, neuralgia, neutrasthenia, new, nostalgia, nymph.(19)

    o. oasis, ocean, octagon, octane, octave, octogenarian=ογδοηκοντούτης, octopous, ode=ωδή, odyssey, oecumenical, Oedipous complex, orgy, oligarchy, Olympiad, Olympic, onomatopoeia, ontology, ophthalmia, optic (optimist, option), orchestra, orchid, organ, organic, organism, organize, orgasm, orphan, orthodox, orthographic, orthopaedic, osteopath, ouzo, oxide, oxygen.(34)

    p. pachyderm, pagan=παγανιστής-ειδωλολάτρης, paleolithic, paleontology, palm, panacea, panchromatic, pancreas, pandemic, pandemonium, panegeric=πανηγυρική ομιλία, panic, panoply, panorama, pantechnicon, pantheism, pantheon, panther, parabola=παραβολή, paradigm, paradox, paragon=παράγων-υπόδειγμα, paragraph, parallel, paralysis, paranoia, paraphrase, paraplegia, parasite, paratyphoid, parenthesis, pariah=παρίας, parody, paroxysm, pater, pathetic, pathology, pathos, patriach, patriot, patronymic, pedagogue, pederasty, pediatrics, pedometer=βηματομετρητής, pentagon, pentameter, Pentateuch, pentathlon, Pentecost, pepsis, perihelion=περιήλιον, perimeter, period, peripatetic, periphrasis, periphery, periscope, peristyle, peritonitis, petal=πέταλο άνθους, phalanx, phallus=φαλλός, phantasm, pharmacology, pharmacy, pharynx, phase, phenomenon, philanthropy, philately, philarmonic, philology, philosophy, philtre, phlebitis, phlegm, phobia, phoenix, phone, phonome=φώνημα, phonetic, phonograph, phonology, phosphorous, photo, photoelectric, photogenic, photograph, photolithography, photometer, phrase, phrenetic, phrenology, phthisis, physics, physiognomy, physiology, physiotherapy, planet, plasm, plasma, plastic, plectrum=πλήκτρο, pleonasm, plethora, plutocracy, plutonium, pneumatic, pneumonia, pole=πόλος, polemic, policy, police, politics, polyandry, polygamy, polyglot, polygon, polymorphus, polyphony, polypous, polysylable, polytechnic, polytheism, porn, practice, pragmatism, presbyter, prism, problem, prognosis, programme, prologue, prophecy, prophylactic, proscenium=προσκήνιο, proselyte, prosody, protagonist, protocol, proton, protoplasm, protozoa, prototype, psalm, pseudonym, psyche, psychedelic, psychic, psychoanalysis, psychology, psychopath, psychosis, psychotherapy, pterodactyl, pylon=πυλώνας, pyramid, pyre=πυρά, pyrites, pyrotechnics=πυροτέχνημα, python.(162)

    r. radio

    s. sandal, sarcasm, sarcophagus, sardonic, satyr, scene, sceptic, schematic, schism, schizophrenia, scholar, scholastic, school, scoria, scorpion, Scotland=χώρα του σκότους, Scylla, seismic, semantic, semaphore=σηματοφόρος, septisemia=σηψαιμία, serial, sir, solecism=σολοικισμός, sophism, spasm, sphinx, stadium, stalactite, stalagmite, star, static, statistics, stereophonic, stereoscopic, sternum, stigma, stoic, stomach, strategy, stratagem, stratosphere, strptococcus, streptomycin, strophe, sycophant, syllogism, symbol, symmetry, sympathetic, symphony, symposium, symptom, synagogue, synchronize, syncope, syndrome, synod, synonym, synopsis, syntax, synthesis, syphilis, syphon, syringe, system.(67)

    t. tactic, talent, tantalize=υποβάλω κάποιον στα μαρτύρια του Ταντάλου, tartar, tautology, taxidermy, technique, technocracy, technology, telegram, telegraph, telemetry, teleology, telepathy, telephone, telephoto, telescope, theatre, theism, theme, theocracy, theology, theorem, theoretic, theory, theosophy, therapeutic, therapy, therm, thermal, thermionic, thermometer, thermos, thesaurus, thesis, tone, topography, tragedy, tragicomedy, tremor, trigonometry, trilogy, tripod, trirem, triple, trophy, tropic, typhoon, typical, typography,tyrrany.(51)

    u. unonymous

    x. xenophobe, xylophone

    z. zephyr, zeugma, zodiac, zone, zoology.(5)

  19. Nice quirky little video. I invented some English words of my own, such as lovefriend (a genderless alternative to boyfriend or girlfriend) and yean (bring up a child) for my just-recently-published first play Dark, Love, and Light, a 21st century play with Shakespeare-style language. You can read excerpts from it at my official site marcusbradyonline(dot)(com).

  20. Humanity Is 195,000 Years Old. Earth is 4.5 Billion Years Old. Christianity is more than 2,000 Years Old.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A.D Years are in Gregorian Calendar.                                                                                                                                                                                                         Other calendars have different years like Indian Muslim Jewish Chinese.                                                                                                                                                       Primates were earliest ancestor of Humans. Had been changed from Generation to Generation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asian people had slanted eyes due to strong winds.                                                                                                                                                                                   White people got paler from cold weather.                                                                                                                                                                                                   The Bible was written in 900 B.C and it translated in English for thousand years.                                                                                                                                           The English Language comes from Spanish Greek German French.                                                                                                                                                              

  21. Love this and the other nine. They are great, charming, fast, frenetic and funny and many other things for which I do not have a word

  22. Great video. I saw the world record made yesterday at Middle Temple in London. All the words were recited in under nine minutes. It is probably best to avoid the word "invented" though as most of them were probably around before Shakespeare had written them down.

  23. But he's nowhere near as popular as Christopher Marlowe, his Faust is way excitiing. I don't think this young Shakespear chap will amount to much.

    (Guess the film I'm referencing)

  24. The Tempest. This is the literary
    testament of Shakespeare 403 years later. That I have deducted in one
    night.

    I do not know why the Shakespearean
    experts speak of the island as an imaginary place, or the Bermuda
    Islands, and another hypothesis. The island of The Tempest, Is
    England. The tests are here.

    Shakespeare wanted, and prayed, for
    Spain to invade England, and Catholics to be liberated. Although he
    feels very English. Nobody wants to imagine that Shakespere, the most
    universal English, wanted Spain to invade England, because England
    builds its national identity remembering the year 1588. But this is
    the truth:

    Precisely because Shakespeare secretly
    practiced Catholicism, and his family had been recused and
    impoverished, he wrote the Tempest to vent, because of the Protestant
    intolerance against Catholics. It was the last play, and he risked
    reprisals and left the theater. The tempest that disperses the ships
    (not the English action, because later there were more invincible
    navies, 2nd and 3rd, of 1596 and 1597, dispersed by storms). But the
    tempest could also bring an army to rescue the Catholics of the
    island. Who lives on the island of Shakespare's Tempest? They had
    lived Sycorax before. Look for Sycorax in Wikipedia, for example: "An
    especially odd and early guess at a meaning by one critic was sic or
    rex, a Latin homophone alluding to Queen Elizabeth's pride".
    Elisabeth Sycorax only appears in the named text. She is described as
    a ruthless witch who has already died. Now there is Caliban, which is
    a cannibal transformation. Caliban is the son of Elisabeth (who
    brought Protestantism again after the death of Maria Tudor).
    Protestant cannibals are "eating" Catholics. Shakespeare is
    very cruel to Caliban, who is a deformed being, "like
    Protestantism then?" But who lives abandoned on that desert
    island of the Tempest? (It can be deserted if they kill us all,
    thinks Shakespeare). Live Miranda (María Tudor), "daugther"
    of Prospero, Duke of Milan (Felipe II of Spain was Duke of Milan, and
    before King of England, and the great protector of Catholicism in
    Europe) Who commanded the invincible army of 1588 ?: Alonso Pérez de
    Guzmán (who was captain general of Lombaría , Milan). Who commanded
    the navy in the text of Shakespeare? a man named Alonso, king of
    Naples. Always Italy, where the Pope is, and always Spanish
    territories in Italy. Who is the greatest traitor in Spain in
    history? Antonio Pérez, who betrayed Felipe II, and traveled to
    England to ally with Elisabeth. Shakespeare met Antonio Pérez.
    Shakespare makes a caricature of Antonio Pérez in "Lovers of
    Verona", and called him Mr. Armada. Who is the greatest traitor
    in the Tempest? Antonio, who has stolen Prospero (Felipe II) the
    title of Duke of Milan, has usurped the name of Spain.

    The daughter of Alonso (head of the
    real and fictitious army) is called Claribel. How could Spain invade
    England? Taking troops from the Netherlands, to embark them in the
    army. Who was the Spanish sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands,
    daughter of Philip II, king who sent the army? Isabel Clara Eugenia.
    Isabel Clara Eugenia was proposed to be queen of France. The King of
    France rejected the proposal, but in return he made France Catholic.
    "Paris is worth a Mass". Shakespeare was thinking that this
    was a solution for England, a wedding like that of Philip and Mary,
    an invasion, or the solution that there was in France, to bring
    Catholicism to England. In addition, Claribel comes from Tunisia,
    where the uncle of Isabel Clara Eugenia, had just left the Moors
    expelled from Spain by infidels. Sycorax (Elisabeth) fue expulsada de
    Argel, por hacer brujería, era menos cristiana que los argelinos.
    Who is the servant of Prospero and Felipe II: Ariel, the wind, who
    has a childish spirit, and does not always obey Prospero. But
    Prospero reminds him of Ariel, that he rescued him from Sycorax.
    When? When Philip II of Spain was king of England he brought
    Catholicism. So in The Tempest, Ariel brings the ships to England.
    Shakespare could not go further without discovering his intention.
    The text of the Tempest is full of much more subtle allusions, almost
    on each page, showing the suffering and relief of Shakespare. The
    text talks about the barrels of wine from Jerez (Spain) that the
    fleet brings to fill the whole island, and that are hidden in a cave
    (wine for Catholic Masses, which were hidden in the 17th century? )He
    wanted what he thought was best for England.

    What is the last sentence of the
    Tempest, the farewell phrase of Shakespeare from the theaters? A
    Catholic phrase.

  25. https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/words-shakespeare-didnt-invent
    https://www.pri.org/stories/2013-08-19/did-william-shakespeare-really-invent-all-those-words
    https://io9.gizmodo.com/no-william-shakespeare-did-not-really-invent-1-700-eng-1700049586
    https://katherinebarber.blogspot.com/2014/08/mythbusting-sorry-no-shakespeare-did.html

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *